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Table 7 Summary of the properties of designed antenna based on QPSO, CS, and DE for antenna size less than 100 mm

From: Bio-inspired optimization algorithms applied to rectenna design

Property DE CS QPSO
Antenna gain (dBi) 3.01 2.812 2.932
Antenna effciency 0.445 0.425 0.435
Efficient bandwidth ratio 0.3463 0.3263 0.3383
Patch width (mm) 99.711 90.529 96.483
Patch length (mm) 37.448 37.664 37.571
Inset feed length (mm) 9.032 27.279 27.354
Notch width (mm) 0.256 0.2574 0.2568
Run time (s) 66.2068 100.621 59.156