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Table 8 Comparison between the properties of designed antenna based on QPSO, CS, and DE for antenna size less than 150 mm

From: Bio-inspired optimization algorithms applied to rectenna design

Property DE CS QPSO
Antenna gain (dBi) 3.82 3.78 3.736
Antenna effciency 0.4902 0.45 0.483
Efficient bandwidth ratio 0.425 0.4115 0.411
Patch width (mm) 150 147.1 149.04
Patch length (mm) 37.294 37.285 37.75
Inset feed length (mm) 2.2649 29.21 3.23 · 10−5
Notch width (mm) 0.2549 0.2549 0.0374
Run time (s) 92.181 99.606 66.2068